Dog family

Domestic Dog

Domestic dog scientifically named as Canis familiaris, now widely distributed all over the world and we can find several hundred breeds of dogs. It is a mammal of family Canidae and subspecies of the grey wolf (Canis lupus). The dogs are consider as one of the most ubiquitous and most popular domestic animals in the world.

According to researches dogs are live with humans for more than 1200 years as a hunting companion, protector adoration and as a friend. The dog evolved from gray wolf into more than 400 distinct breeds. Human beings have played a major role in the domestication and socialization of the dog breeds. By the technology of genetic engineering, different types of dogs are bread for different advance purposes. Details about the evolution of dogs is uncertain, but the first dogs are consider as hunters with keen sense of sight and smell.

According to the cultural backgrounds of countries and regions dogs are treat differently. When considering about the western society dogs have earned important position in loyalty, friendship, protectiveness and affection. In US and Europe, the care and feeding for the dogs have become a business. But in developing countries and many regions of Asia dogs are note in a higher position as US and European countries. In some areas dogs are use as protectors and some countries dogs kills for food. According to the ancient Egypt beliefs dogs are consider to be sacred.

Characteristics of Dogs

Domestic dog have wide range of body shapes and sizes. All the dogs have 78 chromosomes, or 39 pairs pf chromosomes. The one chromosome comes from each parent. The normal body temperature of an adult dog is 100 -102.5 F. Dogs have two sets of teeth. It consists of twenty-eight deciduous teeth and 42 adult teeth. The deciduous teeth erupt during six to eight weeks of age. The permanent teeth consist of incisors, canniness, premolar and molar. Dogs are rarely chew their food. Getting the food into mouth they gulp or swallows those.

The skeletal system of the dog consists 319 bones. The dog hair can be divide in to three basic types. Short hair (Ex: pointer, Doberman), medium hair (Ex: Irish setter, Siberian Husky) and long hair (Ex: Chow chow or Maltese). Most of the dogs shed their fur coat seasonally. Dogs also have the five senses as humans. From those five senses some are highly develop and others are deficient. The dog sense of smell is consider as more acute. Due to this ability dogs are use for tracking missing person, digging underground, tracing toxic substance such as gases and to find explosives.

The dog is consider as a social animal. They mostly prefer the companion of human. The dog also a territorial animal like wolves. Male dogs mark their territories by urinating and rubbing their scent on the ground or on trees and warns other animals of their presence. The normal gestation period of dogs is 63 days from conception. Commonly a female dog gives birth from two to five puppies at once

Origin and history of dogs

Archaeologists have determined that about 60 million years ago a small mammal like a weasel lived in part of Asia. It is call Miacis. This considered as the ancestor of the animals known today as canids (dogs, jackals, wolves and foxes). About 30 -40 million years ago Miacis had evolved as the first true dog named Cynodictics. Cynodictis was a medium size animal, with a long tail and brushy coat. And its longer than it was tall. This creature gave rise to two branches in Africa and Eurasia. The Eurasian branch name as Tomarctus and it is consider as the progenitor of wolves, dogs and foxes.

According to the genetic evidences it’s have been proven that dogs are directly descended from the wolves (Canis). The time and the location of the dog domestication is controversial. The genetic evidences strongly proven that the first domestication occurs somewhere in northern Eurasia between 14,000 and 29,000 years ago. Most of the studies conducted about the dog domestication suggests that domestication was not a single event. It was a continuous process that unfolded over thousands of years.

Dogs Role in Human Society

Domestic dog have played an important role in the human society from the beginning of the human civilization. They were belonging to the first domesticated animal in the human evolution. In the ancient Egypt culture dogs were possess godlike characteristics. They had their own servants, outfitted with jeweled collars, and fed with especial foods. This royalty was offer only to the purebred dogs. After death of a ruler his favorite dog was bury with him to protect him from harm in afterlife. The illustrations of the are found form the Bronze age on walls, tombs and scrolls throughout the Europe, the middle East, and North America. Some burial crypts are guard by the statues of dogs.

 In the hunter gatherer societies dogs used as hunting allies and bodyguard against predators. After the livestock were domesticate dogs have to work as herders and guardians of the sheep, goats and the cattle. Nowadays dogs are mainly use for the social purposes and companionship. Some dogs are employ as guides for the blind and disabled of for police duties. In some hospitals dogs are use as therapy to encourage patients toward the recovery.

Dog Breeds In World

After the ancient society changed and hunting becomes major occupations. In this time other Domestic dog breeds were develop. This happened after finding the evidences that dogs were faster and stronger and could see and hear better than humans. Experiments are conduct to examine these qualities are interbred to enhance such attributes. The fleet- foot sight hounds are rever by noblemen in middle east and in Europe powerful dogs such as mastiff were develop to protect home and traveler. Small breeds were develop for playthings and companionship. Pekingese and Chihuahua were examples for lap dogs. Terrier breed were develop to rid granaries and barns of rodents in mainly England. Pointing and retrieving breeds were develop to fulfill special tasks related to hunters to find animals.

Domestic dog scientifically named as Canis familiaris, now widely distributed all over the world and we can find several hundred breeds of dogs. It is a mammal of family Canidae and subspecies of the grey wolf (Canis lupus). The dogs are consider as one of the most ubiquitous and most popular domestic animals in the world.…


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