# Image Processing

Image processing used to perform some operations on and image and exactly collect, extract some useful information from it. This area is more familiar with engineering and computer science. Actually the digital image processing means,  the analysis and manipulation of a digitized image, especially in order to prove its quality. So these things process by digital computers and necessary applications. Digital image processing basically builds to,

1.Improvement of pictorial information for human interpritayion .

2.processing of image data for stage transmission one to another place and representation for autonomous machine perception. So the basic information take a significant place when we talk about this area,

## What is image?

We normally say the image is projection of 3D scene in 2D plane. The image can be see in 3 dimensional with three axis and it can be present in plane .

Letâ€™s see the mathematical expression of image is, A 2 dimensional functions f(x, y) where x and y are spatial ,coordination and f at any pair of coordinates (x,Y) is called the intensity or gray level of the image at the point. There are 2 types of images,

## Analog image

Analog image also can define above same explanation and in addition to that above mathematical representation has continuous range of values, representing position and intensity, image is analog image .As an example A image produced on the screen of CRT monitor it with high memo ring.

## Digital image

Digital image is A 2 dimensional functions f(x, y) where x and y are spatial ,coordination and f at any pair of coordinates (x,Y) is called the intensity or gray level of the image at the point.F is amplitude .When  x, y and f are all infinite ,discreat quantities image is a digital image.

In generally we analog everything, but storage purposes transmission purposes we convert it to the digital domain with the help of digital computers. And also we use neural networks for the image process tasks.

How to obtain a digital image from the analog image. For that purpose this simple procedure can use.

#### Sampling

Sampling rates describe the number of pixel utilized in constructions (spatial resolution) of the digitized image.

#### Quantization

That one describe the gray levels in the digitized image.Digital value of image processing is expressed as a magnitude of the sampled image.Quantization level should higher for human perception.The fine shading details of the image should be in there.

So the digital image contains finite numbers of elements,each of which has a particular location and value.

These elements are called picture elemen , image elements, pels or pixels.Pixel is the most widely used.

So the advantage of digital image processing are fast processing, cost effective ,effective stotage efficient transmission and scope of versatile image manipulation.

Humans are limited to visual band of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum.(storage,transmission with the help of mashines exactly we can observe.)

But the imaging mashines cover most entire EM spectrum ranging from gamma to radio vawes.Operate on images generated by sourses that human are not capable to sense.These ultrasound,electron microscopy computer generated images.

So the digital image provide more informations compared to human beins directly not related to.

The disadvantages are high memory for good quality image and due to that requires fast processor.

## Scope of digital image processing

No general agreement where image processing stops and other related areas.Such as analysis and computer vision .

Distinction sometimes made with both input and oytput of a process are images.But can limit and somewhat artificial boundry.

EX-T ask of computing the average intensity of on image (single numer)would not be consoder as image processing operation.

Sometimes computer vision which use computers to follow human vision.Including learning ,take an action based on visual inputs.

AI whose objectives is to emulate human intelligence.So the image analysis is  in between the image processing and computer vision.

## Computerized Process Types

1. Low level process is use to operate primitive operation.

EX- Reduce noises

Contrast enhancement

Image sharpening

So in fact that both inputs and outputs are the images.

2.Mid level process

It involves in segmentation,description of those objects and reduce the from suitable for computer processing,classification of an individual objects.

In fact generally the inputs are images and outputs are attributes extract from those images. (edges, contures, identity of the individual object)

So it helps to ensemble of recognized objects in image analysis for end performing the functions normally associated with vision.

3.High level process

Image analysis and computer vision.

## The steps of digital image processing

Color image processing

Wavelets and multiresolution processing

Image compression = Minimize the memory requirements to store and transmit the image

Image processing used to perform some operations on and image and exactly collect, extract some useful information from it. This area is more familiar with engineering and computer science. Actually the digital image processing means,  the analysis and manipulation of a digitized image, especially in order to prove its quality. So these things process by…